"You've proven your skills as a Captain of your spaceship."
Awarded for completing the tutorial missions on space flight. These missions are assigned to the player when they complete Civilization stage, these missions are tutored to teach people the bread and butter for space stage. It's essential to take these missions if people are new to Space Stage, much less Spore.
There can be a glitch in which you do not get the captain's badge. You can't scan the crashed ship to get the interstellar drive and so cannot continue on that planet. You can scan it by using the command spacecreate in Ctrl+Shift+C cheat mode but you will earn the joker badge which prevents you from earning achievements and you will get other tools besides the scan tool.